Vendor pricing strategies - complex, ever evolving software and service licensing models from multiple vendors to flow through predictions and usage accounting.
Centralized Procurement In Multi-National Companies - due to corporate strategy for controls and/or seeking economies of scale from full company buying power
Exceptions - E.g. Pandemic causing sharp fluctuations in resourcing (human or otherwise with Furlough, contracting, burstable cloud services) creating exceptional usage patterns and the need to ensure flexible subscription plans are scrutinised for integrity with joiners/movers/leavers and project/process suspensions etc.
Pattern spotting - Building up the significant data lakes with triangulated data points between related services, allows for build up of benchmarking industry costs and utilisation models for total cost analysis of LOB App and solutions for apportionment. Data science and analysis can surface insights to help drive down costs as well as apportionment norms and the shared cost data can also aid prescription for quality of experience for user adoption etc etc. (different network provider data, compute data etc - optimising cost to performance for better apportionment)